The Islamic Republic of Pakistan was created in 1947 as a partition from India. It is a majority Muslim nation while India is predominantly Hindu. Pakistan, with over 200 million residents, is the 6th largest country in the world. They produce a large number of engineers and scientists with Abdus Salam the winner of the 1979 Nobel Prize in theoretical physics. 12,000 doctors or five percent of foreign doctors in the USA are from Pakistan. Additionally, Pakistan is the only Muslim country with nuclear weapons.
The youngest ever Nobel Prize winner, Malala Yousafzai, won the 2014 Peace Prize for her work as a social activist for female education and the youngest-ever Nobel Prize laureate. She is known for defending women's education in her native Swat Valley in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of northwest Pakistan. In 2014. She authored I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban. Interestingly, a woman, Benazir Bhutto, served as Prime Minister 1988-1990 and 1993-1996.
Along with Hindus, Christians make up one of the two largest religious minorities in Pakistan. The total number of Christians in Pakistan was estimated at 2.5 million in 2005, or 1.6% of the population. Several hundred Christians have been prosecuted under Pakistan's blasphemy laws, and death sentences have been handed out to at least a dozen.